Canadian M&A Perspectives

Private and Public Mergers & Acquisitions | Private Equity

More on “Golden Leash” Arrangements

Institutional investor organization urges SEC to require disclosure

Posted in Public M&A, Shareholders, Strategy
Deandra SchubertShane C. D'Souza

The debate about so-called “golden leash” arrangements has picked up again. The Council of Institutional Investors (“CII”), an influential association of institutional investors, recently wrote a letter to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) expressing its concerns regarding the transparency of compensation paid in “golden leash” arrangements.

As discussed in our previous post, “golden leash” arrangements arise when a shareholder activist privately offers to compensate its nominee directors in connection with such nominees’ service as a director of a target corporation. In January, 2014, Institutional Shareholder Services Inc. provided its views on by-laws designed to prohibit “golden leash” arrangements but did not specifically express any concerns about the appropriateness of such compensation for nominee directors provided the arrangements are disclosed (see our post).

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Augusta/HudBay – A model for target boards to say “not now”?

Posted in Public M&A, Shareholders, Strategy
Ian C. MichaelShane C. D'Souza

The recent outcome of the Augusta/HudBay poison pill hearing provides some insight into how a shareholder rights plan may withstand scrutiny from a Canadian securities regulator for an extended period of time in the right circumstances. Though perhaps the result of somewhat unique facts, including insufficient initial support for the price being offered by the bidder and an active process being conducted by the target company, the British Columbia Securities Commission’s decision in Augusta/HudBay is also of interest in the context of the ongoing debates sparked by the proposed National Instrument 62-105 on Security Holder Rights Plans.

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Fairness Opinions – Important Ontario Court Comment

Posted in Uncategorized
Graham GowJonathan GrantAndrew ParkerMatthew Cumming

The following article by Graham P.C. Gow, Jonathan Grant, Andrew Parker and Matthew Cumming may be of interest to readers of this blog:

Fairness Opinions – Important Ontario Court Comment

In almost every Canadian M&A transaction, the board of directors of the target company, and often also the acquiring company, will expect their financial advisors to provide a fairness opinion to the effect that the price in the proposed transaction is fair to the company and its shareholders from a financial perspective. These opinions are not legally required, but they are commonly used by boards as evidence that the directors have met their duties in approving the transaction. Read more.

Hot Off the Press – Doing Business in Canada: Navigating Opportunities for Investment and Growth

Posted in Uncategorized

If your organization is currently thinking about establishing or acquiring a business in Canada, the newest edition of Doing Business in Canada, written by McCarthy Tétrault, will prove to be a valuable resource. The guide provides a broad overview of the legal considerations that non-residents should take into account to help ensure their success as they enter into a business venture in Canada. Each section offers timely information and insightful commentary on different areas of law.

The book includes a chapter on corporate finance and mergers & acquisitions, with sections on: 
  • public offerings and private placements
  • take-over bids
  • business combinations
  • related-party transactions
After downloading the interactive PDF or eBook, we encourage you to consult one of our lawyers for a more comprehensive analysis of the legal implications of your proposed venture.

Don’t “put” yourself at risk

Beware of the use of put and call options

Posted in Public M&A
Patrick Boucher

Canadian securities legislation provides that a take-over bid may be triggered when an offer to acquire outstanding voting or equity securities of a class of a public company is made to a person in a Canadian jurisdiction, where the securities subject to the offer, together with the offeror’s own securities, constitute in the aggregate 20% or more of the outstanding securities of that class. The take-over bid rules may apply in the context of the grant of put and call options. It is therefore essential to structure the terms of these options to ensure the availability of take-over bid exemptions where necessary.

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New 2014 Competition Act Merger Notification Threshold

Posted in Private Equity, Private Transactions, Public M&A
Oliver J. BorgersMichele Siu

The pre-merger notification transaction-size threshold for 2014 has increased to $82 million from the 2013 threshold of $80 million. As per the indexing mechanism set out in the Competition Act (Act), the pre-merger notification threshold is reviewed annually.

The threshold is based on the book value of assets in Canada of the target (or in the case of an asset purchase, of the assets in Canada being acquired), or the gross revenues from sales “in or from” Canada generated by those assets, calculated in accordance with the Notifiable Transactions Regulations under the Act.  The Competition Bureau must generally be given advance notice of proposed transactions when the acquired assets in Canada or revenues generated in or from Canada from such assets exceed $82 million, and when the combined Canadian assets or revenues in, from or into Canada of the parties together with their respective affiliates exceed $400 million. This amount has not been reviewed and remains the same as in 2013.

SETTING THE RECORD STRAIGHT: protecting against illegal proxy solicitation during a proxy contest

Posted in Uncategorized
Ian C. MichaelShane C. D'Souza

During a proxy contest, strategic consideration should be given to strictly abiding by proxy solicitation rules and hawkishly assessing whether your opponent is doing the same. A recent decision provides guidance on factors that a court will consider in determining a seldom litigated issue – when is communication by the company during a proxy contest an illegal proxy solicitation?

Generally speaking, corporate statutes in Canada prohibit the solicitation of proxies unless the sender (board or dissident) provides shareholders with a proxy circular containing prescribed information. Under the Canada Business Corporations Act, “solicitation” is broadly defined to include communication with shareholders “under circumstances reasonably calculated to result in the procurement, withholding or revocation of a proxy”.

In Smoothwater Capital Partners LP I v. Equity Financial Holdings Inc., 2014 ONSC 324, the board of Equity – following the requisition of a shareholder meeting and proxy solicitation by a dissident shareholder — issued a press release defending the board’s historical actions and responding to criticisms by the dissident Smoothwater. Smoothwater alleged that Equity’s press release was calculated to result in the procurement or withholding of proxies. At the time, Equity had not sent a management information circular.

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SHOTGUN! You should know this before triggering a buy-sell provision

Posted in Contractual Matters, Private Equity, Private Transactions, Shareholders, Strategy
Robert HansenShane C. D'Souza

There are important lessons in a recent Ontario Court of Appeal decision examining shotgun buy-sell provisions, and in particular, the enforceability of a buy-sell offer that does not perfectly comply with the terms and conditions of the shotgun provision.

Unanimous shareholder agreements, partnership agreements, and joint venture agreements often contain what is commonly known as a “shotgun buy-sell provision”, which provides a mechanism for involuntarily expelling one or more parties from the business venture when the business relationship between them sours.

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McCarthy Tétrault launches Canadian Class Actions Monitor blog

Posted in Awards and Recognitions

For those who may be interested, McCarthy Tétrault has just launched its eleventh blog, Canadian Class Actions Monitor, at The blog provides the firm’s views on class actions across Canada in sectors including securities, financial services, product liability, competition, healthcare and other areas of business. It also comments on the impact of class actions on Canadian businesses and the legal landscape, and shares our insights on specific class actions in Canada, related developments and cross-border influences

Please visit the blog!


Posted in Private Equity, Private Transactions, Shareholders, Strategy
Matthew CummingShane C. D'Souza

There are important lessons in a recent Ontario Superior Court decision examining defensive tactics taken by a board in the context of a contested shareholders’ meeting.

In Concept Capital Management Ltd. v. Oremex Silver Inc., 2013 ONSC 7820, the board of Oremex – during a contested election — postponed a shareholders’ meeting and issued shares to a third party, GRIT, in a financing transaction that closed in escrow on the same date as the revised record date for the meeting. Oremex took the view that the new shares could be voted at the contested meeting.

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